How to Pronounce 'ed' at the end of a verb

It's difficult to know how to pronounce 'ed' in English, because it's pronounced in three different ways. It depends on the letter before:

The three ways are:

The most important thing to remember is this:

If the verb has a 'd' or a 't' sound before 'ed' you need to pronounce 'id'. If it doesn't, don't pronounce an extra syllable.

Be careful! It's the sound, not the letter: 'decided' is pronounced 'decide-id' even though 'decide' ends in 'e', because we don't say the 'e', so the last sound is 'd'.

So for example:

For the other two sounds it doesn't matter so much. Just make sure you don't say '-id'! For example, 'stopped' is pronounced 'stopt' and never 'stop-id'.

If the word before 'ed' ends in the sounds 'p', 'f', 's', 'ch', 'sh', 'k', then 'ed' is pronounced 't': So:

For all other words, 'ed' is pronounced 'd':

Leave how to pronounce 'ed' and go to the past simple tense

Go to the present perfect tense

Go to the past perfect tense